A sample of our recent publications

A full list of Dr Beekhuyzen's publications can be found here.

Directions for research on gender imbalance in the IT profession - Published in the European Journal of Information Systems. 1-25. 10. 2017

Authors: Elena Gorbacheva, Jenine Beekhuyzen, Jan vom Brocke, and Jörg Becker.

There is a significant shortage of expert Information Technology (IT) personnel in Europe and elsewhere and a marked under-representation of women in the field. This paper identifies important gaps in research on gender imbalance in the IT profession and motivates future Information Systems research to address each of them. First among these gaps is the lack of research on the far-reaching consequences of gender imbalance in the IT profession. Second, despite a considerable body of research, there is the lack of coherent explanation for this imbalance. Third, although many intervention programmes have been implemented in this area, gender diversity in practice has not improved significantly. This research field also requires theorisation based on the cumulative research efforts in the field, comparative studies in various contexts, and longitudinal studies. We point to opportunities to investigate each of these issues and recommend directions for future research and actionable research questions.

A cognitive decision tool to optimise integrated weed management - Published at International Tri-Conference for Precision Agriculture 2017.

Authors: Kate Devitt, Tristan Perez, Debra Polson, Tamara Pearce, Ryan Quagliata, Wade Taylor, David Thornby, Jenine Beekhuyzen.

Weed management is becoming more complex due to the rise of herbicide resistant weeds. Integrated weed management strategies are recommended to minimize herbicide resistance. However, weed management can be daunting and uncertain leading to biased, avoidant or suboptimal decisions. Existing weed management tools can be insensitive to user needs and changing contexts over time. This paper discusses a proof of concept cognitive tool for integrated weed management decisions.

Our team has taken initial steps into the design of an interactive tool for cotton growers that allows them to explore the impact of individual priorities and strategy preferences (optimistic, pessimistic and risk related) on weed management decisions given uncertainty in temperature and rainfall. Our research tackles the challenge of engaging stakeholders in complex decision making in three ways: 1) recognizing individual cognitive priorities 2) visualising scientific weed management in an appealing mobile interface and 3) representing decision uncertainties and risk weighted against cognitive priorities.

Specifically, our tool communicates personalised barnyard grass weeding management strategies for pre-crop and in-crop cotton weeding decisions. We ranked a set of actions including applications of herbicides: glyphosate, paraquat (shielded and unshielded), group A, trifluralin, diuron, pendimethalin, s-metolachlor, fluometuron, glufosinate; and non-chemical methods such as soil disturbance at various times prior to planting, at planting and in crop. Each action was evaluated against personal priorities including: saving time/effort, health/safety, saving money, sustainability and effectiveness.

The adoption of decision support in AgTech is improved when users can represent the objective benefits of recommended actions proportionately to their own needs and measures of success. Our interactive decision tool provides individualised decision support and quantifies uncertainty about attributes relevant to decision-makers to optimise integrated weeding management. The framework, however, can be extended to other decision making context where user priorities and decision uncertainties need to be incorporated alongside scientific best-practice.

Achieving Rigor in Literature Reviews: Insights from Qualitative Data Analysis and Tool-Support - Published in Communications of the Association for Information Systems 2015

Authors: Wasana Bandara, Elfi Furtmuller, Elena Gorbacheva, Suraya Miskon, Jenine Beekhuyzen

It is important for researchers to efficiently conduct quality literature studies. Hence, a structured and efficient approach is essential. We overview work that has demonstrated the potential for using software tools in literature reviews. We highlight the untapped opportunities in using an end-to-end tool-supported literature review methodology. Qualitative data-analysis tools such as NVivo are immensely useful as a means to analyze, synthesize, and write up literature reviews. In this paper, we describe how to organize and prepare papers for analysis and provide detailed guidelines for actually coding and analyzing papers, including detailed illustrative strategies to effectively write up and present the results. We present a detailed case study as an illustrative example of the proposed approach put into practice. We discuss the means, value, and also pitfalls of applying tool-supported literature review approaches. We contribute to the literature by proposing a four-phased tool-supported methodology that serves as best practice in conducting literature reviews in IS. By viewing the literature review process as a qualitative study and treating the literature as the “data set”, we address the complex puzzle of how best to extract relevant literature and justify its scope, relevance, and quality. We provide systematic guidelines for novice IS researchers seeking to conduct a robust literature review. 

Illuminating the underground: the reality of unauthorised file sharing - Published in Information Systems Journal 2015 

Authors: Jenine Beekhuyzen, Liisa von Hellens, Sue Nielsen

This paper presents a new conceptualisation of online communities by exploring how an online community forms and is maintained. Many stakeholders in the music industry rightly point out that unauthorised file sharing is illegal, so why do so many people feel it is acceptable to download music without paying? Our study found highly cohesive, well-organised groups that were motivated by scarcity and the lack of high quality music files. Our ethnographic research provides insight into the values and beliefs of music file sharers: their demands are not currently being met. Using Actor-network theory, we are able to propose that the file sharers represent a growing potential market in the music industry and that music distribution systems should be developed accordingly to meet the demands of this user group. Therefore, this study can serve as a springboard for understanding unauthorised file sharing and perhaps other deviant behaviours using technology.

A Knowledge management model to improve the development of bushfire communication products - Published in the Australasian Journal on Information Systems 2014 18(3) pp97-118

Authors: Keith Toh, Brian Corbitt, Jenine Beekhuyzen

This paper brings together two bodies of literature around knowledge management (KM) as enterprise integration (EI) and organisational ontology and epistemology as philosophy, in order to develop an extended KM approach to the development of bushfire preparedness material in the Australian context. Knowledge Management (KM) in enterprise integration (EI) practice manifests as process-centric electronic document and records management solutions. Knowledge creation and organisational epistemology is viewed as a social process, but this is often left unrepresented by KM processes. The body of literature on KM tends to focus on organisational functionality and organisational KM that is based on EI ontology tends to be restricted by organisational functionality and process models. We argue that developing the KM-Model using subjectivist epistemology has a significant role in KM and organisational studies for emergency and disaster agencies. As part of the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) ‘Effective Communication and Communities’ project, bushfire communication materials were collected from all Australian States and Territories and analysed using NVivo, representing a knowledge base. Data sources including semi-structured interviews with bushfire agency staff and residents in bushfire-prone localities. Interview data was analysed using thematic analysis, and emergent themes were represented using UML as a platform independent representation of the extended knowledge domain that is capable of representation in a digital space. This work unites organisational ontology, organisational epistemology and EI; the different manifestations of KM. We theorise about how organisational epistemology itself forms as part of the knowledge, where currently there is a lacking of a satisfactory end-to-end framework. The KM lifecycle, therefore, is extended by incorporating the social research processes as part of organisational epistemology to include external audiences through the themes of locality types, place and roles of individuals as volunteers and agency staff. The practical implications are that qualitative methods and toolsets can be included as part of KM to improve the development and deployment of bushfire preparedness material. 

ICT Interventions for girls: Factors influencing ICT career intentions - Published in the Australasian Journal on Information Systems 2014 18(3) - Winner of the Leonie Warne Award

Authors: Elena Gorbacheva, Annemieke Craig, Jenine Beekhuyzen, Jo Coldwell-Neilson

Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3711), collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

Moving health promotion communities online: a review of the literature - Published in Health Information Management Journal 2013 42(2) pp9-16

Authors: Naomi Sunderland, Jenine Beekhuyzen, Elizabeth Kendall, Malcolm Wolski

There is a need to enhance the effectiveness and reach of complex health promotion initiatives by providing opportunities for diverse health promotion practitioners and others to interact in online settings. This paper reviews the existing literature on how to take health promotion communities and networks into online settings. A scoping review of relevant bodies of literature and empirical evidence was undertaken to provide an interpretive synthesis of existing knowledge on the topic. Sixteen studies were identified between 1986 and 2007. Relatively little research has been conducted on the process of taking existing offline communities and networks into online settings. However, more research has focused on offline (i.e. not mediated via computer networks); 'virtual' (purely online with no offline interpersonal contact); and 'multiplex' communities (i.e. those that interact across both online and offline settings). Results are summarised under three themes: characteristics of communities in online and offline settings; issues in moving offline communities online, and designing online communities to match community needs. Existing health promotion initiatives can benefit from online platforms that promote community building and knowledge sharing. Online e-health promotion settings and communities can successfully integrate with existing offline settings and communities to form 'multiplex' communities (i.e. communities that operate fluently across both online and offline settings).


Now I know what ICT can do for me - Published in Information Systems Journal - Volume 22, Issue 5, pages 375–390, September 2012

Authors: Kaylene Clayton, Jenine Beekhuyzen & Sue Nielsen

The under-representation of women entering into information and communication technology (ICT) programmes is a long-standing problem. While ICT continues to be increasingly accepted and integrated into everyday life, gender stereotypes prevail in ICT turning female students away from ICT as an occupa- tion. Based on existing literature on factors influencing girls’ career choices and on an empirical qualitative study in three schools in Australia, a conceptualisation of the influence of middle-school experiences on girls’ ICT study and career choices is presented. This conceptualisation is used as a guide to evaluate a recent intervention programme aimed at promoting ICT study and work opportunities to middle-school girls. A number of recommendations for future programmes are provided, highlighting the need to study how subcultures that support ICT career choices develop and are supported in Australian schools.


Structuration bridging diffusion of innovations and gender relations theories: a case of paradigmatic pluralism in IS research - Published in Information Systems Journal 2013 (early view)

Authors: Marlei Pozzebon, Dale Mackrell & Susan Nielsen

This paper discusses the adoption of a pluralist theoretical framework – one that is also multiparadigmatic – for conducting and publishing information system (IS) research. The discussion is illustrated by a single case study involving the Australian cotton industry. The theoretical framework is informed by three sociological theories, each with its particular paradigmatic assumptions: structu- ration theory as a meta-theory, and diffusion of innovations and gender relations as lower-level theories from notionally opposing paradigms. Theoretical pluralism helped to produce rich findings, illuminating both the social nature of women farmers’ roles, the materiality of the cotton farming context, the characteristics of the decision support systems in use and the recursive way in which human agency and institutional pressures shape each other. Because users of so-called diver- gent paradigms often face criticism based on the incommensurability issue, one of the main contributions of this paper is to discuss the value of a pluralist and multiparadigmatic theoretical framework in dealing with complex IS social phenomena.


Insights from the Underground: Using ANT to understand practices and motivations for file sharing in online communities - Published at the European Conference for Information Systems 2012 - Winner of the Claudio Cibbora award for innovative research.

Authors: Jenine Beekhuyzen, Liisa von Hellens, Sue Nielsen

Underground music file sharing communities are online social spaces that facilitate the sharing of mostly unauthorised digital content. This paper proposes underground file sharing communities as subcultures, and explores the Roswell community from theoretical perspectives of group formation and translation from Actor-network theory (ANT) to gain a better understanding of the motivations for file sharing. Through observations and supporting interviews, a detailed discussion of underground file sharing communities is presented. The discussion reveals interesting insights about the ‘black box’ of file sharing, and the ideologies of those involved. Scarcity and quality are strong motivators for engaging in underground file sharing communities, with access to high quality music files and scarce music files being a reward for actively participating. The quality of content is maintained through strict rules for converting and uploading new music. Because underground communities are quite sophisticated, it is argued that it is possible to learn from them and use this knowledge in the development of future online music systems and communities.


The Nvivo Looking Glass: Seeing the Data Through the Analysis - Published in the QualIT Conference 2010

Authors: Jenine Beekhuyzen, Sue Nielsen, Liisa von Hellens

This paper focuses on the process of data analysis for an ethnographic doctoral study. Analysis of the interviews for the critical ethnography is discussed in detail in this paper, with particular attention given to the use of Nvivo – a qualitative data analysis software tool – to support data analysis. It is argued that using Nvivo helps to make the analysis process transparent. The metaphor of the looking glass is used to analogise the process of data analysis, and using Nvivo. The context of the critical ethnography is presented, the file sharing sub-culture. Actor-network theory is the guiding theory for the research, and detailed accounts of how different researchers apply actor-network theory to empirical data are rare. Therefore this paper makes a contribution by providing a detailed account of a systematic approach to qualitative data analysis, using ANT as the guiding theory.


Conducting a literature review: A puzzling task - Published at the AARE Conference 2008

Author: Jenine Beekhuyzen

(EXTENDED ABSTRACT) A literature review is much like a jigsaw puzzle; piecing together the seemingly endless pieces of published research and other sources, and telling a story with the finished ‘picture’. There is a lack of available practical information on how to conduct a literature review, and there is even less available that use qualitative research software to support the process. To address this gap, this paper discusses the journey of an information systems PhD research student using Nvivo for a literature review. In this paper Nvivo8 is proposed as a tool to help any researcher accomplish a rigorous and transparent literature review. Here a practical example of such a process is presented in seven steps, using a well-known qualitative research software that gives the researchers new opportunities to explore and piece together the challenging task of a literature review.

It important to acknowledge the criticisms of qualitative research software however using such software can add benefits and value to the research process. Although there are endless texts on how to conduct research, such text rarely do justice to discussing how to do a literature review, especially to do so in any detail. While the purpose and objectives of conducting a literature review are generally clear, the process for actually carrying out the literature review is complex, continuous and can be difficult to explain. Therefore this paper attempts to contribute an account of how to conduct the literature review (although this is just one example), with hints on how to do a literature review using software. It attempts to make explicit as possible the process of conducting a literature review using qualitative research software.

This paper builds on the author’s 2007 paper, which discusses using Nvivo7 for a literature review. With the release of Nvivo8 in 2008 and most current users moving to the new version, the paper needs updating. It is important to note that the information presented in the previous paper is by no means redundant and useless; this paper builds on the discussion presented there and is adapted for the Nvivo8 environment. Further, it discusses the use of some of the new features and how they can add value to conducting a literature review. These new features include more flexibility with the casebook (used for demographic information in an empirical project, used to categorise and track papers in a literature review); using video and audio as secondary data sources; and the addition of support for pdf files, which overcome a major challenge to a research project, identified in the previous paper.

I have chosen to use Nvivo8 and other software for quite specific reasons. Firstly, I have been using Nvivo8 (and its predecessors) for eight years across different projects, and it is widely used around the world. Using Nvivo8 to manage most documents relative to my PhD research, I have found it to be a useful tool for coding literature text and for supporting theory generation. I have found it to be a good project management tool for organising nearly all aspects of my PhD research project, and it is important to analogise how to manage the research project without software (using highlighter pens and a photocopier). I argue that it is important to be able to do this. So far, the software has enabled me to manage my notes and ideas about the large collection of published research papers (electronic documents) and web links I have, as well managing details about the many external (hard copy) sources such as journal papers, books and reports. Combining these abilities as well as being able to code/categorise the summarised details of these sources into themes and being able to search across codes/themes are by far its greatest benefit and justifies its use.

But by no means is Nvivo8 the only option for a research project and it is not used in isolation. It can be used exclusively but its use should also be considered alongside other tools such as Excel and Endnote. In the project presented here, Excel is used to manage the observation data, as Nvivo8 wasn’t as useful for this task. In terms of using Endnote, it is a bibliographic reference management tool (as opposed to a data analysis tool) and it is used in compliment to Nvivo8 and Excel. In this research Endnote is used to manage the bibliographic details of all of my literature sources. Even though Endnote enables the researcher to add abstracts and some references to what might be considered codes (i.e. keywords), Nvivo8 takes it a step further by allowing much greater flexibility in assigning any number of pieces of texts (coding) to any number of concepts (nodes). It also enables complex search functions that work on the coded text and nodes, tasks not available in Endnote or Excel. Basically the Nvivo8 activity of coding literature brings together all of your ideas (that you have purposively coded) about a particular concept or theme. By doing this, it is then easy to open just that node (concept/theme) to read filtered information about just that topic, and use this to write up your literature review.

My PhD research provides the basis for the discussion in this paper, as it provides the context in which to present ideas about ways to use Nvivo8. I am now in the final year of my studies. My research approach is interpretive and my research data is qualitative. My ethnography takes a cultural perspective to understanding the attitudes, motivations and behaviours of online music users. The research papers that make up the literature review for such a project are also qualitative data and they need to be analysed in a way that gives the researcher the ability to deconstruct, analyse and synthesise them in a useful and relevant way. Coding literature is a form of qualitative data analysis and in this paper Nvivo8 is proposed as such a tool to help any researcher accomplish this.